The Labour leader was allegedly targeted after visiting Finsbury Park Mosque on Saturday afternoon.
Sky News reported that the arrested man was believed to be a pro-Brexit campaigner.
The Metropolitan Police said in a statement: “On Sunday, 3 March at around 3.52pm an egg was thrown at a member of parliament.
“The incident occurred on Seven Sister’s Road.
“A 41-year-old man was quickly detained by officers on scene and arrested on suspicion of assault.
“He is currently in custody at a north London police station.”
Mr Corbyn had been taking part in “Visit My Mosque Day”, an annual campaign encouraging more than 250 mosques across the UK to hold open days for people from all faiths.
He was presented with a bunch of red roses on his arrival at Muslim Welfare House in Seven Sisters Road before meeting children taking part in activities at the community centre.
The Labour leader was not harmed by the egging, according to the Press Association.
His predecessor Ed Miliband was hit by an egg during a walkabout in Southampton in 2012.
Other politicians to be targeted in the same way include David Cameron, Baroness Warsi and George Galloway.
In 2001 John Prescott famously punched an egg-throwing protester during a visit to Rhyl in north Wales.